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I WAS THUS FORCED TO QUESTION THE TRADITIONALLY HELD OPINION THAT THE MOSES-LED GROUP, ON ITS WAY FROM EGYPT TO THE LAND OF CANAAN, PASSED THROUGH/AROUND EDOM (AND MOAB) DURING THE LATE BRONZE-IRON I PERIODS.On the basis of recent archaeological work, I concluded that a Moses-led group would have encountered little, if any, opposition if it had passed through the territories in question during the periods traditionally associated with this event.Hoffmeier argues that Moses being a Prince of Egypt would have been an educated man and capable of writing and composing a record of the Exodus and its itinerary.He therefore rejects Redford's proposal as nonsense:"It is inconceivable that early Israelites were incapable of preserving their early history, in either oral or written form, from the second half of the second millennium onward... Moses' activities and speeches are presented in the third person, a format which would _not_ have been used by Moses had he really written the account appearing in the Holy Bible. Ge ) and they are feared by Israel upon her departure from Egypt (Ex ). Certain locations mentioned in the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible, which also include the Exodus account, have been identified by archaeologists and excavated; the excavations revealed that these sites either were not in existence in Moses' days, or if they were in existence, they were abandoned and not occupied _contra_ the biblical portrayal of events. Had Moses (or some other eye-witness) written the Exodus account the number of letters used for writing would be 30 in 1552/1446 B. If some of the sites mentioned in the Pentateuch and Exodus narratives were not in existence or deserted in Moses' time (1512/1446 B. so there would be no need for the Exodus to avoid the way to the land of the Philistines.Obviously someone else is writing about Moses and describing his activities (Cf. The Philistines are portrayed as being in Canaan in the days of Abraham (circa 2100 B. Archaeology has established that the Philistines are the Pelest of Ramesside era records and they did not settle in Canaan until circa 1175 B. Thus the Exodus account is _in error_ in having Philistines present circa 1512 B. The archaeological excavations revealed that some of the sites were in existence only in the 7th century B. so this anomaly suggests the Exodus account is no earlier. C.) "how" can one identify the route of the Exodus from the itinerary given in Numbers 33:1-50? That is to say, if there was an Exodus circa 1512/1446/1260 B. they probably did take "the way to the land of the Philistines" as the Philistines were not present to oppose them.It is the Late Iron Age II Period, the 7th-6th centuries B. Some scholars have suggested on this archaeological basis that the Exodus account was composed towards "the end of the Late Iron Age II Period," the author and his audience being apparently _unaware_ that the cities in existence at this time were _not_ in existence (or if in existence, they were unoccupied) within the time frame the anonymous author cast the Exodus story in. For the reasons why "Sites mentioned in the Exodus narrative are real.I understand that Genesis-2 Kings was composed in 560 B. A few were well known and apparently occupied in much earlier periods and much later periods- after the kingdom of Judah was established, when the text of the biblical narrative was set down in writing for the first time.

On the other hand, the Iron II Age is well represented in all of these areas.

There were _no_ Philistines in Canaan to harass Israel in a 1512 or 1446 B. Consequently, this massive military facility would have had troops stationed continuously throughout the New Kingdom.

Therefore, it is most unlikely the Israelites would have taken this way out of Egypt...

If I am correct in believing that there was an historical Moses who was a product of the royal nursery, then he would have been trained in the Egyptian scribal tradition. Redford thinks these events derived from the Hyksos experience in Egypt -their migration, period of dominance, followed by their forced exodus. crops up which aligns with the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose I who expelled the Hyksos:"However, as Jack showed, if all the periods are added together, such as the forty years in Sinai, the lengths of the judges, and periods of peace between the judges, plus the length of David's reign, the total is 534 years. Egyptian priest and historian Manetho claimed Israel was expelled by a pharaoh called Rameses and his notion aligns somewhat with the Ramesside Iron Age I archaeological evidence found in Transjordan and Canaan.

During the New Kingdom, some Egyptian scribes connected to the court had to be bilingual to deal with communiques that came to Pharaoh from the far reaches of the empire, like the Amarna letters, written in cuneiform. For him a particular group of Shasu (Bedouin) who lived in the Sinai and the Negev are the forebears of Israel. I have noted that when this figure is added to Solomon's 4th year (circa 966 B. On top of this figure, the duration of Joshua's leadership in Canaan and the length of Saul's kingship, which are not preserved, bring the total close to six hundred years." Canaan in Ramesside times does witness the sudden appearance of over 600 villages, hamlets and farms of stone on both sides the the Jordan River as portrayed in the Book of Joshua. Most archaeologists identify Israel's settlement in Canaan with the Iron Age I findings (circa 1200-1100 B. The Bible does suggest Israel leaves a location in Egypt called Rameses (Ex , ; Nu 33:3) and a "land of Rameses" (Ge ) and they identify this name with Pharaoh Rameses I (ca.

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