Carbon dating cost

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This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C (482 °F), and copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C (2,010 °F), and the combination, bronze, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C (1,981 °F).

In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C (2,507 °F).

With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make very high-carbon (and other alloy material) steels, but such are not common.

Cast iron is not malleable even when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties.

Basically, steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction.

Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron.

In pure iron, the crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, and so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and easily formed.

In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, and inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms.

Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects.

Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron (now largely obsolete), which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag.

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